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German Verb Types Overview

The basic starting point for all verbs is the 鈥榠nfinitive鈥 form: to sing, to eat, to play.

The infinitive then takes small changes, called 鈥榗onjugations鈥 based on who the subject is (I, you, he, etc.): I sing, he sings; I eat, he eats.

Most verbs are categorized as strong, weak, or mixed. Weak verbs take few, predictable changes. Strong verbs take more, less predictable changes. Mixed verbs combine the rules/patterns of weak and strong.

Key verbs such as sein, haben, werden, the modal verbs and other oddballs are outliers with many, highly-unpredictable changes that don鈥檛 allow them to fit neatly in the strong / weak / mixed paradigm.

Modal verbs are paired with infinitives: I can ski and perhaps I should ski, but I don鈥檛 like to ski during the week. I want to ski on Saturday.

Some German verbs have prepositions (or other words) added in front of the infinitive. These can be either 鈥榮eparable-prefix鈥 or 鈥榠nseparable-prefix鈥 verbs.

A body of German verbs are called 鈥榬eflexive verbs鈥 because the subject of the sentence is doing something to himself: Ich rasiere mich (I鈥檓 shaving myself).

Collocations are verbs paired with prepositions (and possibly other words): I鈥檓 thinking of him, I鈥檓 falling in love.

About 50 German verbs 鈥榯ake the dative鈥. These 鈥榙ative鈥 verbs have implied direct objects: Ich helfe ihm (I help him [by giving help]). Ich rate ihr (I advise her [by giving advice]).

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Written by: Laura Bennett
- 8 minute read
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Components:

Infinitives & Conjugations

German has more possible conjugations than English, taking into account person, tense, and whether the verbs is strong / weak / mixed / oddball.

Examples:
Ich gehe. Ich ging. Ich bin gegangen.
(I go. I went. I have gone.)

Du sagst. Du sagtest. Du hast gesagt.
(You say. You said. You have said.)

Prefixes

Prefixes (usually prepositions or adverbs) can separate (or not) or even be 鈥榯wo-way鈥 prefixes that separate from the main verb just sometimes.

Examples:
English: to go out / German: ausgehen (to outgo)
English: to come inside / German: hereinkommen (to insidecome)

Infinitives & Conjugation

Most infinitives end with -en (some with -ern, -eln, or -ieren). Taking off these endings leaves us with the 鈥榮tem鈥 or 鈥榬oot鈥. To these stems / roots, we must add the conjugations, which primarily indicate person (I, you, he/she/it, we, y鈥檃ll, they).

In English, generally only the 3rd Person Singular has a conjugation different from the other persons:

I sing 鈥 we sing
you sing 鈥 y鈥檃ll sing
he sings 鈥 they sing

But in German, there are 4 conjugations:

ich singe 鈥 wir singen
du singst 鈥 ihr singt
er singt 鈥 sie singen

German conjugations are same for all verbs (independent from whether the verb is strong / weak / mixed), with only minor exceptions for modals and other oddballs or in the rarely-used simple past tense.  

Weak Verbs

Weak verbs (thousands of them!) do not additionally change the verb stem / root in the present tense, add a 鈥榯鈥 to the stem in the simple past, and form the past participle with ge + (stem) + t.

ich h枚re 鈫 ich h枚rte 鈫 ich habe geh枚rt
du kaufst 鈫 du kauftest 鈫 du hast gekauft

Weak verbs in the simple past for the 3rd person singular (er/sie/es) change the typical -t conjugation to an -e, just like the 1st person singular.

ich h枚re 鈫 ich h枚rte 鈫 ich habe geh枚rt
er h枚rt 鈫 er h枚rte 鈫 er hat geh枚rt

Strong Verbs

Strong verbs (about 150 of them) take a stem-vowel changes (in particular instances) in addition to usually using the regular conjugations.

Present Tense:

ich helfe 鈥 wir helfen
du hilfst 鈥 ihr helft
er hilft 鈥 sie helfen

NOTE: in the present tense, only the 2nd & 3rd Persons, Singular take stem-vowel changes.

Simple Past Tense:

ich half 鈥 wir halfen
du halfst 鈥 ihr halft
er half 鈥 sie halfen

NOTE: Notice here the absence of any conjugation at all for the 1st or 3rd Persons, Singular.

Present Perfect:

ich habe geholfen 鈥 wir haben geholfen
du hast geholfen 鈥 ihr habt geholfen
er hat geholfen 鈥 sie haben geholfen

NOTE: past participles (e.g. geholfen) for strong verbs are ge + (stem with changed vowel) + en

Mixed Verbs

There are only 9 mixed verbs in German, so they鈥檙e pretty easy to remember! Mixed verbs combine the typical rules for weak and strong verbs.

brennen 鈫 brannte 鈫 gebrannt
rennen 鈫 rannte 鈫 gerannt

In the simple past tense, a 鈥榯鈥 is added to the stem just like a weak verb. However, there is also a stem-vowel change like strong verbs. Similarly, the past participle combines the weak 鈥榯鈥 ending with a stem-vowel change.

Sein, Haben, and Werden

The verbs 鈥榯o be鈥 and 鈥榯o have鈥 are usually the most irregular in any language. In some cases, you can still see some of the same conjugations; but other letters are added or dropped in the stem. Or, sometimes letters seem to materialize out of nowhere.

鈥楽ein鈥 doesn鈥檛 even have a stem / root! It鈥檚 conjugations break down like this:

ich bin 鈥 wir sind
du bist 鈥 ihr seid
er ist 鈥 sie sind

Where, for instance, do the 鈥榖鈥檚 come from?

These oddballs need to be memorized for all persons individually because of all their wackiness vs. strong / weak / mixed verbs that at least follow consistent patterns that can be applied across the board to other verbs of their type.

The added bonus of learning sein, haben, and werden like the back of your hand, though, is that you use these three verbs a lot when forming various tenses of other verbs. In fact, these three oddball verbs in particular are known as 鈥榓uxiliary verbs鈥 because of this very function.

Modal Verbs

In many ways, modal verbs can be thought of as 鈥榦ddballs鈥, too. They do follow some patterns unique to themselves, but there are many departures from typical conjugations and stem-vowel changes the way we see them with strong / weak / mixed verbs.

There are 6 modal verbs 鈥 well, 6 陆, as I like to say (read the full article HERE) 鈥 and they are crucial for learn! You will use these handy little verbs all the time.

Modal verbs are 鈥榯o can鈥, 鈥榯o must鈥, 鈥榯o want鈥, 鈥榯o should鈥, 鈥榯o may鈥, 鈥榯o like鈥 and 鈥 the 陆 modal 鈥 鈥榯o would like鈥 (because it鈥檚 a sub-category of the verb 鈥榯o like鈥).

Modal verbs must always be paired with other infinitive verbs:

Ich kann singen.
Du darfst rauchen.
Er soll saubermachen.
Wir wollen schlafen.
Ihr m枚gt Schokolade.
Sie m枚chten reisen.
Sie (you, plural) m眉ssen gehen.

Separable and Inseparable Verbs

Prepositions or adverbs are added in front of infinitive verbs to change the meaning 鈥 sometimes only subtly, sometimes drastically.

gehen (to go) 鈥 ausgehen (to go out) 鈥 vergehen (to pass / fade away)

There are even some 鈥榯wo-way prefixes鈥 that separate from some verbs, but not from others.

Wir machen eine schlechte Zeit durch. BUT: Ich durchschaue deinen Plan.
Das Bad ist 眉bergelaufen. BUT: Ich 眉berlasse dir die Wahl.

Some prefixes attach to the same verb, but whether it separates changes the meaning.

Ich versuche den Brief umzuschreiben. / Ich versuche den Brief zu umschreiben.

Reflexive Verbs

German uses a lot of reflexive verbs where English does not.

Some verbs always take an accusative reflexive pronoun 鈥 these are the true reflexive verbs.

sich ausruhen
sich erholen
sich setzen

However, just about any verb can be made reflexive if the subject and object are the same person:

Ich sehe mich im Spiegel.
Ich rasiere mich.
Ich schneide mich in den Finger.
Ich wasche mich.

These same verbs don鈥檛 have to be reflexive, though: Ich sehe dich im Spiegel.

Some verbs that don鈥檛 have direct objects in English must have one in German, so it takes a reflexive pronoun.

Alles wird sich 盲ndern.
Das Rad dreht sich.
Die T眉r 枚ffnet sich.

Collocations

Some verbs are paired with prepositions for specific meanings. These collocations are either accusative or dative and may be reflexive or not:

Accusative

sich gew枚hnen an 鈥 to get used to
sich verlieben in 鈥 to fall in love with
sich freuen 眉ber 鈥 to be happy about
sich freuen auf 鈥 to look forward to
glauben an 鈥 to believe in
denken an 鈥 to think of
hoffen auf 鈥 to hope for

Dative

sich f眉rchten vor 鈥 to be afraid of
sich besch盲ftigen mit 鈥 to be occupied with
sich umsehen nach 鈥 to look around for
bestehen aus 鈥 to consist of
bestehen auf 鈥 to insist upon
aufh枚ren mit 鈥 to stop doing
verkehren mit 鈥 to associate with

Notice the instances in which only the preposition has changed, yet the meaning of the collocation is then totally different.

Dative Verbs

There are about 50 verbs that always take a dative (indirect) object even though there is no direct object.

helfen
folgen
gefallen
gelingen

Of course, there are also verbs that take both accusative (direct) and dative (indirect) objects, but these are not technically dative verbs:

Ich schreibe dir einen Brief.
Ich gebe dir das Geld.

You have hopefully rightly assumed, then, that with the exception of these 50 dative verbs, transitive verbs (verbs that take an object) default to taking accusative (direct) objects!

Verb Types Articles:
Coming soon

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